RSS

Weird Android junit test failure java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: android/content/Context

Symptom

Have a Android project run junit test fine, suddenly it failed to run unit test with following error:

xxxxTest
initializationError

java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: android/content/Context
    at java.lang.Class.getDeclaredMethods0(Native Method)
    at java.lang.Class.privateGetDeclaredMethods(Class.java:2615)
    at java.lang.Class.getDeclaredMethods(Class.java:1860)
    at org.junit.internal.MethodSorter.getDeclaredMethods(MethodSorter.java:54)
...
...
...
Caused by: java.lang.ClassNotFoundException: android.content.Context
    at java.net.URLClassLoader.findClass(URLClassLoader.java:382)
    at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(ClassLoader.java:419)
    at sun.misc.Launcher$AppClassLoader.loadClass(Launcher.java:352)
    at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(ClassLoader.java:352)

Troubleshooting

This error is weird since the error is not 100% reproduce-able.

Tried run test with gradle and there is no error. Just use following command to run junit test in gradle command line:

./gradlew test

Check the java version, I have two java sdk installed. One is system java sdk, the other is Android sdk.

$ java -version
java version "10.0.1" 2018-04-17

$ /Applications/Android\ Studio.app/Contents/jre/jdk/Contents/Home/bin/java -version
openjdk version "1.8.0_242-release"

The gradle use system java, Android studio use the other jdk. This caused the issue.

Solution

Use the same jdk.

In mac, get JAVA_HOME path by /urs/libexec/java_home:

$ /usr/libexec/java_home
/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/jdk-10.0.1.jdk/Contents/Home

Then set this path in Android Studio for current project by following steps:

  1. Click File menu.
  2. Click Project Structure.
  3. Click SDK Location in left side navigation.
  4. Set JDK Location to output of /urs/libexec/java_home.
  5. Remove .gradle folder in project folder.

Then rebuild project in Android studio and re-run test, should be good now.

Similar errors for references

All those errors may cause by the same issue. List here for a cross reference.

java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: android/app/Application

java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: android/app/Application

	at java.lang.ClassLoader.defineClass1(Native Method)
	at java.lang.ClassLoader.defineClass(ClassLoader.java:763)
	at java.security.SecureClassLoader.defineClass(SecureClassLoader.java:142)
	at java.net.URLClassLoader.defineClass(URLClassLoader.java:467)
	at java.net.URLClassLoader.access$100(URLClassLoader.java:73)
	at java.net.URLClassLoader$1.run(URLClassLoader.java:368)
	at java.net.URLClassLoader$1.run(URLClassLoader.java:362)
	at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method)
	at java.net.URLClassLoader.findClass(URLClassLoader.java:361)
	at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(ClassLoader.java:424)

java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: android/os/Parcelable

java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: android/os/Parcelable
    at java.lang.ClassLoader.defineClass1(Native Method)
    at java.lang.ClassLoader.defineClass(ClassLoader.java:800)
    at java.security.SecureClassLoader.defineClass(SecureClassLoader.java:142)
    at java.net.URLClassLoader.defineClass(URLClassLoader.java:449)
    at java.net.URLClassLoader.access$100(URLClassLoader.java:71)
    at java.net.URLClassLoader$1.run(URLClassLoader.java:361)
    at java.net.URLClassLoader$1.run(URLClassLoader.java:355)
    at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method)
    at java.net.URLClassLoader.findClass(URLClassLoader.java:354)
    at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(ClassLoader.java:425)
    at sun.misc.Launcher$AppClassLoader.loadClass(Launcher.java:308)
    at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(ClassLoader.java:358)
    at java.lang.Class.getDeclaredMethods0(Native Method)
    at java.lang.Class.privateGetDeclaredMethods(Class.java:2615)
    at java.lang.Class.getDeclaredMethods(Class.java:1860)
    at org.junit.internal.MethodSorter.getDeclaredMethods(MethodSorter.java:54)
    at org.junit.internal.runners.JUnit38ClassRunner.<init>(JUnit38ClassRunner.java:74)
    at org.junit.internal.builders.JUnit3Builder.runnerForClass(JUnit3Builder.java:11)
    at org.junit.runners.model.RunnerBuilder.safeRunnerForClass(RunnerBuilder.java:59)
    at org.junit.internal.builders.AllDefaultPossibilitiesBuilder.runnerForClass(AllDefaultPossibilitiesBuilder.java:26)
    at org.junit.runners.model.RunnerBuilder.safeRunnerForClass(RunnerBuilder.java:59)
    at org.junit.internal.requests.ClassRequest.getRunner(ClassRequest.java:33)
    at org.junit.internal.requests.FilterRequest.getRunner(FilterRequest.java:36)
    at com.intellij.junit4.JUnit4IdeaTestRunner.startRunnerWithArgs(JUnit4IdeaTestRunner.java:41)
    at com.intellij.rt.execution.junit.JUnitStarter.prepareStreamsAndStart(JUnitStarter.java:211)
    at com.intellij.rt.execution.junit.JUnitStarter.main(JUnitStarter.java:67)
    at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
    at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:57)
    at com.intellij.rt.execution.application.AppMain.main(AppMain.java:134)
Caused by: java.lang.ClassNotFoundException: android.os.Parcelable
    at java.net.URLClassLoader$1.run(URLClassLoader.java:366)
    at java.net.URLClassLoader$1.run(URLClassLoader.java:355)
    at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method)
    at java.net.URLClassLoader.findClass(URLClassLoader.java:354)
    at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(ClassLoader.java:425)
    at sun.misc.Launcher$AppClassLoader.loadClass(Launcher.java:308)
    at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(ClassLoader.java:358)
    ... 33 more

java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: android/util/Log

java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: android/util/Log
    at com.randomtype.yycparking.StallTests.setUp(StallTests.java:11)
    at junit.framework.TestCase.runBare(TestCase.java:132)
    at junit.framework.TestResult$1.protect(TestResult.java:110)
    at junit.framework.TestResult.runProtected(TestResult.java:128)
    at junit.framework.TestResult.run(TestResult.java:113)
    at junit.framework.TestCase.run(TestCase.java:124)
    at junit.framework.TestSuite.runTest(TestSuite.java:243)
    at junit.framework.TestSuite.run(TestSuite.java:238)
    at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.junit3.JUnit3TestReference.run(JUnit3TestReference.java:130)
    at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.TestExecution.run(TestExecution.java:38)
    at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.runTests(RemoteTestRunner.java:467)
    at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.runTests(RemoteTestRunner.java:683)
    at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.run(RemoteTestRunner.java:390)
    at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.main(RemoteTestRunner.java:197)
Caused by: java.lang.ClassNotFoundException: android.util.Log
    at java.net.URLClassLoader$1.run(URLClassLoader.java:202)
    at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method)
    at java.net.URLClassLoader.findClass(URLClassLoader.java:190)
    at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(ClassLoader.java:306)
    at sun.misc.Launcher$AppClassLoader.loadClass(Launcher.java:301)
    at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(ClassLoader.java:247)
    ... 14 more